ACK1 (TNK2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase interacts with androgen receptor or AR in an androgen-independent manner. Expression of activated ACK1 correlates positively with the progression of disease to CRPC stage, and PC patients whose tumors display moderate to strong staining of activated ACK1 have poor prognosis. Figure on right shows: (A) TMA stained with pTyr284-ACK1 antibodies. (B) Increasing expression of pTyr284-ACK1 in later stages of prostate cancer. (C) Kaplan-Meier survival curves shows that individuals with prostate cancer that have moderate to strong staining of pTyr284-ACK1(>2 )have a significantly worse overall survival outcome .

ACK1 in Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. About 15% of all breast cancers do not express estrogen, progesterone or HER2 receptor and classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). These tumors are difficult to treat due to the lack of target. We have uncovered that ACK1 is activated in a majority of TNBCs. Further, we show that knockdown ACK1 can suppress the proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro.

These data suggests that targeting ACK1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy in breast and prostate cancers

ACK1 expression in Prostate Cancer

Activated ACK1 expression correlates positively with disease progression and negatively with survival of prostate cancer patients.

ACK1 expression in Breast Cancer

TNBC were treated with ACK1 inhibitor (R)-9b and pY176-AKT levels were assessed. C. Cells were treated with (R)-9b and the number of viable cells were counted by trypan blue exclusion assay.